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In this article we will discuss about the process of androgenesis, explained with the Success of anther culture is highly dependent on the genotype of the plant. The success of androgenesis dependent on the variety used, the growth . Razdan M.K, An introduction to plant tissue culture, ().Oxford. In vitro androgenesis is an important component of plant biotechnology when the pollen .. In: Korea-China Plant Tissue Culture Symposium, Academia Sinica.

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The microspore divides unequally as in pathways I and II.

Colchicine is very widely used for diploidization of homologous chromosomes. The uninucleate microspores divide unequally forming cutlure and generative cell. Isolated pollen not the anther appears to be sensitive to light. The temperature shock helps in dissolution of microtubules and causes abnormal division of microspores. Thus, anther cultures are reasonably efficient for haploid production.

This is a question and answer cukture for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

The anther should be collected from the flower buds of adult healthy plant and it is very important to use the healthy explant. The vegetative cell does not divide, e. Development of an egg cell containing male nucleus to a haploid is referred to as androgenesis. anfrogenesis

The sporophyte arises through divisions of vegetative cell, the generative cell gets degenerated e. This technique was later applied for raising haploid plants of rice, wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beet and tobacco. Haploid plants are characterized by possessing only a single set of chromosomes gametophytic number of chromosomes i. The existence of haploids was discovered hissue early as by Bergner in Datura stramonium.

Haploids are in general unstable in culture and have a tendency to undergo endomitosis to form diploid cells. Whenever a liquid medium is used, the ovaries are placed on a filter paper or allowed to float over the medium with pedicel inserted through filter paper.


This induces callus formation followed by differentiation. The basic principle of native androgenesis is to stop the conversion of pollen cell into a gamete, and force its development into a plant. The variation in response of anthers from plants grown under plantt environmental conditions may be due to the differences in endogenous level of growth regulators. Anther walls act as conditioning factors and promote culture growth. In certain plant species, addition of glutathione and ascorbic acid promotes androgenesis.

For such plant species, this technique is superior to another culture technique.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

Anther culture is easy, quick and practicable. For a successful in vivo androgenesis, the egg nucleus has to be inactivated or eliminated before fertilization.

Young plants, grown under optimal conditions of light, temperature and humidity, are suitable for androgenesis. The importance of haploids in the field of plant breeding and genetics was realised long ago. The uninucleate microspore undergoes equal division to form two daughter cells of equal size e.

This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Endomitosis is the phenomenon of doubling the number of chromosomes without division of the nucleus.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

Viable and large pollen smaller pollen do not regenerate are concentrated by filtration, washed and collected. Anthers with microspores ranging from tetrad to the bi-nucleate stage are responsive to culture.

Morphological approach, however, is not as effective as genetic approach. If they are at the correct stage, each anther is gently separated from the filament and the intact anthers are inoculated on a nutrient medium. When the plants are mature, colchicine in the form of a paste is applied to the axils of leaves. These plants may grow up to a flowering stage, but viable gametes cannot be formed due to lack of one set of homologous chromosomes. The process of apomixis or parthenogenesis development of embryo from an unfertilized egg is responsible for the spontaneous natural production of haploids.


Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

The presence of only one ovary per flower is another disadvantage. Gynogenic haploids were first developed by San Noem from the ovary cultures of Hordeum vulgare. The uninucleate microspore undergoes a normal unequal division but the pollen embryos are formed from the generative cell alone.

These pollen are cultured on a solid or liquid medium. There is, however, no single medium suitable for anther cultures of all plant species.

In vitro culture of un-pollinated ovaries or ovules is usually employed when the anther cultures give. The above markers have been used for the development of haploids of maize. Androgenesiw formation of macroscopic structures, these can be transferred to a regeneration medium and kept at 14 hr. The young plantlets are directly treated with colchicine solution, washed thoroughly and replanted.

The pollen can be extracted by pressing and squeezing the anthers with a glass rod against the sides of a beaker. The embryos are formed from the generative cell while the vegetative cell does not divide at all or undergoes limited number of divisions e. Consequently, there is no seed formation. The pollen suspension is filtered to remove anther tissue debris. The two approaches are: As the cells divide, the pollen grain becomes multicellular and burst open.

Haploid plants can be developed from ovary or ovule cultures. Production of gynogenic haploids is particularly useful in plants with male sterile genotype.