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grupy hydroksylowe, estry, ketony b¹dź aldehydy. Po- niewa¿ peptydy zawieraj¹ .. spe³niaj¹cych zadanie zbli¿one do synonimów, uroz- maica tekst i stanowi. W Polsce podobnego zadania podjql sip Polski Komitet Normalizacji. – l aldehydes -aldehydy aliphatic amines -aminy alifatyczne . izopropyloamina ketones -ketony lead y enie gazu . Cenione s ketony cykliczne 0 atomach wftgla, ktore maj zapach piZmowy, S to: salicylan benzylu, alkohol cynamo- nowy, aldehyd cynamonowy, cytral, calkowicie zmetabolizowany w organizmie po spelnieniu swojego zadania.

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We have another possibility here.

Formation of hemiacetals and hemiketals

So that’s going to give us our final product where we have carbon double bonded to our nitrogen and then we have nitrogen bonded to our Y group here.

This carbon right here will be number one, two, three, four, and five like this. Let’s see how to form imines and enamines and start with the formation of an imine we start with an aldehyde or a ketone. All right, next step would be to deprotonate this intermediate here, so we could have another molecule of alcohol, so let’s go ahead and draw that in here, so another molecule of an alcohol, which in this case can function as a base.

So these electrons in green moved out onto our oxygen.

So we go over here and we draw our product, double bond to our nitrogen and then we have our ethyl group and lone pair of electrons on our nitrogen. And there was a hydrogen attached to our oxygen, and also an R double prime group, like that. So let’s put in the electrons in these bonds. Between carbon and hydrogen, carbon is more electronegative zadabia hydrogen so it takes ektony two electrons.


So let’s go ahead and draw one of the possible products. And so we can do that with our imine.

Utlenianie aldehydów za pomocą odczynnika Tollensa (film) | Khan Academy

So let’s go ahead and draw the results of that acid base reaction. Powstawanie imin i enamin. Acetals as protecting groups and thioacetals.

And then if you put some varnish on there you’ll have a really nice silver mirror. So this is our iminium ion right here.

So the nitrogen is bonded to one carbon. Powstawanie imin i enamin.

So I can think about lone pairs of electrons on our oxygen, and now it’s a little bit easier to see the nucleophilic attack. But once again the mechanism is the same until you get to this last step here.

So let me go ahead and write on here Chemist Tree if it’s the holiday season. So in here, lone pair of electrons on the oxygen, pick up this proton and so forming this bond right here and now you can see we have a good leaving group.

So now the carbon has bonded to an oxygen over here on the right, so no longer bonded to a hydrogen, and that’s an oxidation, that’s an oxidation here. We know that the geometry at our carbonyl carbon is trigonal planar, so it’s possible the nucelophile could attack from the opposite side and if that happened, then the oxygen would go down relative to the plane.

And then I’m saying this hydrogen here is down, so this is our intermediate.

Formation of hemiacetals and hemiketals (film) | Khan Academy

And you can see this is the one with the OH down relative to the plain of the ring, and if you’re thinking about which anomer this is you can compare this OH to this CH two OH group, which is up relative to a flat plain of the ring. Which gives us a plus one formal charge on our nitrogen. This is what we need to react with Tollen’s reagent.


And because of all these OH aldehydu on the glucose molecule. This is a chiral center. And so we have a good electrophile, this carbon here is a good electrophile and the imine can be a good nucleophile.

Powstawanie imin i enamin

And so these are our two possibilities. So these electrons, right, we know that each bond consists of two electrons, so I’m putting in those electrons in here like that. And since they’re on opposite sides, this would be aldeydy trans, they’re trans to each zadznia. We know that zarania next deprotonate, so a base comes along and takes this proton, and then these electrons in here move off onto our oxygen.

Let’s go ahead and draw everything out, and let’s go ahead and use the same color, so we have carbon double bonded to our oxygen, and put in our electrons here, and then we have a carbon bonded to a carbon, and then carbon now bonded to an oxygen over here on the right. And let me show you pictures of a couple of these things. Would you like to tell us about aldehyfy lower price?

So if these electrons came off onto the oxygen these electrons in the nitrogen could move in here to form a double bond between the carbon and the nitrogen. It had two lone pairs of electrons around it.